When I was running the setup.exe to install the SharePoint Server 2016 with SP1 I got this strange error right at the end of the installation process:

Microsoft SharePoint Foundation administration tool has stopped working

After unsuccessfully digging through the logs I moved over to check the SharePoint installation folder. I have noticed that the Feature Pack 1 (aka the November cumulative update) has been extracted to the SharePoint\Updates folder. After removing all files in the Update folder the installation went smoothly. My advice is to install the cumulative updates afterwards instead of trying to slipstream them.